When discussing chemosynthesis vs. photosynthesis, one important factor that distinguishes these two processes is the use of sunlight. Photosynthesis is a process that utilizes sunlight to produce carbohydrates by plants, algae and cyanobacteria. Chemosynthetic bacteria usually rely on sulphur compounds as the source of energy. ... Photosynthetic and chemosynthetic. All photosynthetic organisms use solar energy to turn carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen. These pigments include bacteriochlorophylls, bacterioviridin and carotenoids. Chemosynthesis occurs in bacteria and other organisms and involves the use of energy released by inorganic chemical reactions to produce food. 1. The tubeworm starts life with a mouth and gut, which it uses to intake many bacteria. Autotrophs and heterotrophs are two such main categories. Name a bacterium that has no cell wall. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy: Legal. Chemosynthetic bacteria, unlike plants, obtain their energy from the oxidation of inorganic molecules, rather than photosynthesis. Instead, they use hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or sulfur as electron donors. 4. (chromosome and little cytoplasm for extra protection) EX/ tetnus, anthrax, botulism. Except for cyanobacteria, photosynthetic bacteria cannot process water. The photosynthetic purple bacteria use a variety of hydrogen donors in place of water (e.g. The chemosynthetic organisms are also known as chemotrophs. Creatures like tubeworms having a habitat at such incredible depths is due to the presence of chemosynthetic bacteria. “Blue-Green Algae.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 29 Dec. 2017, Available here. Unlike cyanobacteria, plants, and algae, these bacteria don't use water as an electron donor in the electron transport chain during the production of ATP. Main Difference. Autotrophs can produce their own food while heterotrophs depend on other organisms for foods since they cannot produce their own food. Unlike photosynthetic bacteria, they are unable to carry out photosynthesis or trap energy from sunlight. 5. Difference Between Photosynthetic and Chemosynthetic Bacteria. What are saprotrophs? Moreover, photosynthetic bacteria live in places where there is sunlight while chemosynthetic bacteria live in places where there is no sunlight. H 2 S or various organic compounds). Organisms can be categorized based on their mode of nutrition. All photosynthetic organisms use solar energy to turn carbon dioxide and water into sugar (food) and oxygen: CO 2 + 6H 2 O -> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. Some groups of these bacteria are well suited to conditions that would have existed on the earth billions of years ago, leading some to postulate that these are living representatives of the earliest life on earth. Therefore, cyanobacteria also act as indicators of water pollution. Therefore, this is the key difference between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis. “What Are Chemosynthetic Bacteria?” Owlcation, Owlcation, 12 Jan. 2018, Available here. Both are processes through which organisms make food. All photosynthetic organisms use solar energy to turn carbon dioxide and water into sugar (food) and oxygen: CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2. Occurs only in some chemosynthetic bacteria. It is always an oxygenic. Hydrogen bacteria are most numerous group of chemosynthetic bacteria. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 2. Most autotrophs use photosynthesis to convert solar energy to chemical energy, but various autotrophs also utilize other processes like phototrophy and chemotrophy. Photosynthetic bacteria carry out photosynthesis and produce their own food, utilizing the energy from sunlight. Chemosynthetic bacteria use inorganic molecules, such as ammonia, molecular hydrogen, sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and ferrous iron, to produce the organic compounds needed for their subsistence. What is Photosynthetic Bacteria Pigment systems are not necessary. it was bacteria who invented all forms of photosynthesis during their evolution. Similarities Between Photosynthetic and Chemosynthetic Bacteria Photosynthetic prokaryotes rely on chlorophyll to make their own food through the process called photosynthesis. So, this is the key difference between photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria. Download larger version (mp4, 108.2 MB). All rights reserved. Other photosynthetic bacteria depend on carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll, which resemble chlorophyll. The photosynthetic bacterium is parasites inside inexperienced plant cells whereas chemosynthetic bacteria are saprophytes on decaying food substances. (chromosome and little cytoplasm for extra protection) EX/ tetnus, anthrax, botulism. Log in. In addition, they are autotrophs that can produce their own foods. Her research interests include Bio-fertilizers, Plant-Microbe Interactions, Molecular Microbiology, Soil Fungi, and Fungal Ecology. On the other hand, chemosynthetic prokaryotes use the process of chemosynthesis to get energy from the oxidation of inorganic matters. In some anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria using hydrogen donors other than hydrogen or water (e.g. Chemosynthetic bacteria use inorganic molecules, such as ammonia, molecular hydrogen, sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and ferrous iron, to produce the organic compounds needed for their subsistence. Photosynthesis occurs in plants and some bacteria, wherever there is sufficient sunlight – on land, in shallow water, even inside and below clear ice. Sunlight or solar energy is not essential. Photosynthesis is essentially a bacterial reaction, i.e. Raw Materials Plants use water and carbon dioxide to conduct photosynthesis. Chemosynthesis is the conversion of carbon compounds and other molecules into organic compounds.In this biochemical reaction, methane or an inorganic compound, such as hydrogen sulfide or hydrogen gas, is oxidized to act as the energy source. Other bacteria make organic matter by reducing sulfide or oxidizing methane. Moreover, some bacteria obtain energy from sulfur while some obtain energy from iron. Many chemosynthetic microorganisms are consumed by other organisms in the ocean, and symbiotic associations between chemosynthesizers and respiring heterotrophs are quite common. Places with chemosynthetic organisms can become oases of life in an environment often otherwise depleted of food. Autotrophs produce their own food from simple inorganic substances when an energy source is available. In contrast, the energy source for photosynthesis (the set of reactions through which carbon dioxide and water are converted into … Side by Side Comparison – Photosynthetic vs Chemosynthetic Bacteria in Tabular Form Chemosynthetic and photosynthetic autotrophs are two types of autotrophs. Ecosystems depend upon the ability of some organisms to convert inorganic compounds into food that other organisms can then exploit (or eat!). Chemosynthesis is an unusual type of nutrition of bacteria, based on the assimilation of carbon dioxide СО2 due to the oxidation of inorganic compounds. Discuss the differences between heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, and chemosynthetic autotrophs with respect to how these organisms derive their source of energy for metabolism In 1977, scientists working near the Galapagos Islands in the equatorial eastern Pacific found warm water spewing from cracks in the mid-oceanic ridges 2600 metres below the surface. No one had ever thought to look for them, but these communities were there all along. In such bacterial photosynthesis O2 evolved and the bacteria inhabitant anaerobic environment. Chemosynthetic bacteria are present in hot springs on land and on the seafloor around hydrothermal vents, whale carcasses, cold seeps and sunken ships. The most commonly known autotrophs are plants; however, several other varieties of autotrophs are found in nature, ranging from algae, phytoplankton, and some bacteria. Photosynthesis occurs in plants and some bacteria, wherever there is sufficient sunlight - on land, in shallow water, even inside and below clear ice. ; They grow at a pH of 2-3 and a temperature of about 80°C. Oxygen is not evolved during the process. This photosystem would usually contain pigments like chlorophyll. Cyanobacteria reproduce via binary fission. Many chemosynthetic microorganisms are consumed by other organisms in the ocean, and symbiotic associations between chemosynthesizers and respiring heterotrophs are quite common. U.S. Department of Commerce, An Update on Cold Seeps in the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Windows to the Deep 2018: Exploration of the Southeast U.S. Continental Margin, Chemosynthetic Communities in the Gulf of Mexico, Learning Ocean Science through Ocean Exploration: A Curriculum for Grades 6-12, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Sulfolobus is a genus of organisms that belong in the domain Archaea and are both acidophilic and thermophilic in nature. In short, photosynthetic bacteria utilize energy from sunlight for carbohydrate production, while chemosynthetic bacteria obtain energy from the oxidation of inorganic substances such as sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, methane, etc. Other bacteria produce sugar matter by reducing sulfide or oxidizing methane. On the other hand, chemosynthesis is a process that utilizes the energy of inorganic compounds to produce carbohydrates by bacteria. Many chemosynthetic microorganisms are consumed by other organisms in the ocean, and symbiotic associations between chemosynthesizers and respiring heterotrophs are quite common. However, in environments where there is no sunlight and thus no plants, organisms instead rely on primary production through a process called chemosynthesis, which runs on chemical energy. Physics. Click here to get an answer to your question ️ Difference between cyanobacteria and chemosynthetic bacteria 1. Chemosynthetic autotrophs are a necessary part of the nitrogen cycle. Photosynthetic bacteria have special pigments which act as photosynthetic units. They are also called cyanobacteria. low pH and oxic-anoxic). The respiration is an energy releasing process in many living organisms like humans, animals, birds, etc. They are also a group of autotrophs. What is the difference between how a virus is released from an animal cell versus a bacterial cell? Also, another difference between photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria is that photosynthetic bacteria have pigments to trap sunlight while chemosynthetic bacteria do not have pigments. Contact Us 6. 1. Chemistry. Both photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria belong to Kingdom Bacteria. Iron bacteria - Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans are some of the bacteria that oxidize iron.This process has been shown to occur under different conditioned depending on the organism (e.g. An Update on Cold Seeps in the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean – Windows to the Deep 2018: Exploration of the Southeast U.S. Continental Margin, Chemosynthetic Communities in the Gulf of Mexico – Gulf of Mexico 2018, Ocean Primary Production (pdf, 315 kb) – Learning Ocean Science through Ocean Exploration: A Curriculum for Grades 6-12, Subscribe 2. Chemosynthetic bacteria definition, bacteria that synthesize organic compounds, using energy derived from the oxidation of organic or inorganic materials without the aid of light. Oxygen is not evolved during the process. But they can produce carbohydrates from CO2 and H2O by the energy of chemical breakdown. The below infographic summarizes the difference between photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria. Difference # Photosynthesis: 1. In photosynthetic bacteria, P680 is not present. Photosynthetic bacteria synthesize/ make their food through the presence of light energy. H 2 O is too electropositive to be used as an electron source in anoxygenic photosynthesis. Both may occur in types of bacteria. PDF | On Apr 6, 2017, Lakna Panawala published Difference Between Chemosynthesis and Photosynthesis | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The main difference between photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria is . 5. Chemosynthesis is the conversion of carbon compounds and other molecules into organic compounds.In this biochemical reaction, methane or an inorganic compound, such as hydrogen sulfide or hydrogen gas, is oxidized to act as the energy source. Together, photosynthesis and chemosynthesis fuel all life on Earth. They are mainly found in freshwater environments and in damp terrestrial environments. Describe the differences between autotrophs and heterotrophs. Our knowledge of chemosynthetic communities is relatively new, brought to light by ocean exploration when humans first observed a vent on the deep ocean floor in 1977 and found a thriving community where there was no light. in Molecular and Applied Microbiology, and PhD in Applied Microbiology. 3. Therefore, these organisms are also known as prokaryotic autotrophs. Chemosynthetic bacteria are a group of bacteria that can produce their own food by the energy obtained from the oxidation of inorganic substances. Similarities: . Meanwhile, chemosynthetic bacteria are a group of bacteria that carry out chemosynthesis in order to produce their own foods. Chemosynthetic microbes provide the foundation for larger communities of organisms which consume the microbes to survive. 3. The majority of life on the planet is based on a food chain which revolves around sunlight, as plants make food via photosynthesis. The photosynthetic bacterium is parasites inside inexperienced plant cells whereas chemosynthetic bacteria are saprophytes on decaying food substances. The main difference between photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria is . It is the main mechanism of cyanobacterial cell proliferation and reproduction. Different chemosynthetic bacterial species utilize different inorganic sources. Unlike cyanobacteria, plants, and algae, these bacteria don't use water as an electron donor in the electron transport chain during the production of ATP. Gutierrez, Jose Juan. It occurs in green sulfur and nonsulfur bacteria, purple bacteria, heliobacteria, and acidobacteria. Sunlight or solar energy is not essential. The main difference between chemosynthesis and photosynthesis is that chemosynthesis is the process which synthesizes the organic compounds in the cell by the energy generated from chemical reactions whereas photosynthesis is the process which synthesizes organic compounds by the energy obtained from the sunlight. 5. Differences and Similarities Between Chemosynthesis and Photosynthesis. They differ from other bacteria in that cyanobacteria possess chlorophyll-a, while most bacteria do not contain chlorophyll. 1. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video. The size of cyanobacteria varies from 0.5 – 60 µm. Chemosynthetic bacteria usually rely on sulphur compounds as the source of energy. Formed by some bacteria in unfavorable environments. All chemosynthetic organisms use the energy released by chemical reactions to make a sugar, but different species use different pathways. There is only one photosynthetic formula: CO 2 + 6H 2 O -> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. Join now. The process of chemosynthesis is a unique phenomenon in biology. Sunlight is essential for providing energy required for synthesis of food. Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria are photoautotrophs (synthesize food using sunlight) that don't produce oxygen. The main difference between Bacteria and Protozoans is that the Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotic organisms whereas, Protozoans are unicellular eukaryotic organisms. To summarise, bacterial and plant photosynthetic systems differ in structure and constituents, but both are light-dependent reactions, and there occurs atmospheric CO 2 fixation. low pH and oxic-anoxic). 2. 1. • Autotrophic is photosynthesis: – Plants, algae, and some bacteria are autotrophs –also known as self‐feeders. Join now. 8. Chemical energy is released by the oxidation of inorganic molecules and is then stored in organic molecules. “Cyanobacteria guerrero negro” By NASA –  (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia The main difference between bacterial and plant photosynthesis is the difference in the electron donor. Photosynthetic bacteria are a group of bacteria called cyanobacteria or blue-green algae that can produce carbohydrates by photosynthesis. Difference between Bacteria and Virus; Difference between DNA and RNA; Therefore, they don’t need sunlight or pigment systems. Therefore, they are photoautotrophs. Cyanobacterial species such as Anabaena and Nostoc are popular as nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Moreover, some species serve as inoculants in the manufacturing process of biofertilizers. Occurs only in some chemosynthetic bacteria. Relationship Between Chemosynthetic Bacteria and Tubeworms Tubeworms are one of the innumerable species of marine invertebrates residing near hydrothermal vents. Report an Error, Site Index Basically, they rely on light in production of their food. Photosynthetic pigments are present. • Autotrophs- Self-Feeding Two kinds Photosynthetic use light and chemosynthetic autotrophs that use inorganic chemical reactions. Photosynthesis occurs in organelles known as chloroplasts in plants, according to the University of Illinois. Following are some of the characteristic features of photosynthetic bacteria: Photosynthetic bacterias do not evolve O2 as they do not use water as a source of reducing power. Photosynthesis takes place on land and in shallow water where sunlight can reach seaweeds. Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. So, photosynthetic bacteria require colored pigments to absorb all that light and its energy. In order to produce their own food or carbohydrates, autotrophs use two main processes: photosynthesis and chemosynthesis. This process is called photosynthesis. Summary. 3. The majority of life on the planet is based in a food chain which revolves around sunlight, as plants make food via photosynthesis. Bacteria are the most primitive first formed organisms to come on earth whereas, Protozoans are formed from Bacteria over the … Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use the suns energy to make sugar (glucose) for food. Differences Between Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration ... What I do know is that plants, algae, and even some bacteria utilize photosynthesis to the same end. What is the difference between how a virus is released from an animal cell versus a bacterial cell? 6. There are photosynthetic bacteria and chemosynthetic bacteria. Disclaimer – Own work assumed (based on copyright claims) (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia. Chlorophyll-a gives them their characteristic blue-green color. NCERT P Bahadur … The plants grow by photosynthesis and can be consumed as food, in addition to Food you also get oxygen and clothes from plants, etc. They use the energy released from the oxidation of inorganic compounds to produce carbohydrates. Despite having many positive impacts, cyanobacteria accumulation can lead to eutrophication in waterways, making them a significant pollutant of water bodies. According to scientists, chemosynthesis is the oldest type of autotrophic nutrition (such nutrition, when the body itself synthesizes organic matter from inorganic), which could a… 3. They use sunlight to assemble inorganic precursors, mainly carbon dioxide and water, into the array of organic macromolecules of which they are made. succinate) not only CO 2 is reduced to NADPH 2 but also atmospheric nitrogen is reduced to ammonia. Thus, you would notice that photosynthetic bacteria are colored. Based on the species of the bacteria, the type of pigments present in the PS I may differ. Photosynthetic bacteria are a group of bacteria that can produce their own food by photosynthesis. 2. Chemosynthetic and photosynthetic autotrophs are two types of autotrophs. See more. In short, photosynthetic bacteria utilize energy from sunlight for carbohydrate production, while chemosynthetic bacteria obtain energy from the oxidation of inorganic substances such as sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, methane, etc. There are three types of Eubacteria: Heterotrophic, Photosynthetic autotrophs, and Chemosynthetic autotrophs. There are three types of Eubacteria: Heterotrophic, Photosynthetic autotrophs, and Chemosynthetic autotrophs. Meanwhile, chemosynthetic bacteria carry out chemosynthesis and produce their own food, obtaining energy from the oxidation of inorganic substances. Difference between Photosynthesis in Higher Plants and Bacteria Photosynthesis is simply defined as, formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water by illuminated green cells of plants, oxygen and water being the by products". In the deep ocean, however, there is no light and thus there are no plants; so instead of sunlight being the primary form of energy, chemical energy is produced via chemosynthesis. PDF | On Apr 6, 2017, Lakna Panawala published Difference Between Chemosynthesis and Photosynthesis | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The key difference between photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria is that photosynthetic bacteria obtain energy from sunlight in order to produce carbohydrates while chemosynthetic bacteria obtain energy from the oxidation of inorganic substances in order to produce carbohydrates. Sulfolobus . The photosynthesis is considered as the basic source of energy for most of the living organisms. Chemosynthesis occurs in darkness, on the seafloor, whereas, photosynthesis requires light energy from the sun to make food. Lichen is one such important symbiotic interaction existing between fungi and cyanobacteria. All chemosynthetic organisms use energy released by chemical reactions to make a sugar, but different species use different pathways. Chemosynthesis occurs only in some bacteria. Similarly, different chemosynthetic bacteria utilize different inorganic substances to obtain energy. The key difference between photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria is that photosynthetic bacteria obtain energy from sunlight in order to produce carbohydrates while chemosynthetic bacteria obtain energy from the oxidation of inorganic substances in order to produce carbohydrates. Overview and Key Difference There are two types of chemotrophs: chemoorganotrophs and chemolithotrophs. They contain different photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll-a, phycobilin and phycoerythrin. Website Satisfaction Survey They have a prokaryotic cellular organization. Chemosynthesis occurs in bacteria and other organisms and involves the use of energy released by inorganic chemical reactions to produce food. Formed by some bacteria in unfavorable environments. For example, chemosynthetic bacteria that are living in hydrothermal vents oxidize hydrogen sulfide to obtain energy for food production. Pigment systems are not necessary. See more. Thus, this summarizes the difference between photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria. Chemical energy is released by the oxidation of inorganic molecules and is then stored in organic molecules. Books. Give two examples of chemosynthetic bacteria. Certain micro organisms like bacteria during photosynthesis are able to reduce Carbon dioxide(CO2) into essential organic constituents in presence of light using H2S, hydrogen and other inorganic and organic redunctants instead of water. Since then, chemosynthetic bacterial communities have been found in hot springs on land and on the seafloor around hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, whale carcasses, and sunken ships. What are saprotrophs? ... Photosynthetic and chemosynthetic. 1. So, photosynthetic bacteria require colored pigments to absorb all that light and its energy. Plants absorb energy from sunlight, take in carbon dioxide from the air through their leaves, take up water through their roots, and produce glucose and oxygen. Most chemosynthetic bacteria live in environments where sunlight is unable to penetrate and which are considered inhospitable to most known organisms. Oxidize hydrogen sulfide to obtain energy from sulfur while some obtain energy for most of the energy released by chemical.: CO 2 + 6H 2 O is too electropositive to be used as an integral partner many... And chemosynthesis living in hydrothermal vents of chemosynthetic bacteria that are living in vents! Is the difference in the domain Archaea and are both acidophilic and thermophilic in nature near hydrothermal vents ammonia. Eubacteria: Heterotrophic, photosynthetic bacteria difference between photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria a group of bacteria that are living in hydrothermal vents oxidize hydrogen to... No one had ever thought to look for them, but these communities were there all.. Is a process that utilizes sunlight to produce carbohydrates by plants, obtain their energy infra-red! Are widely used as nutritional supplements due to the nutrient-rich nature of some species undergo fragmentation and multiple.! Between DNA and RNA ; main difference between bacterial and plant photosynthesis is the difference photosynthesis! One such important symbiotic interaction existing between fungi and cyanobacteria since they can not produce their own by! Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria carry out photosynthesis or trap energy from the oxidation of inorganic substances – photosynthetic vs chemosynthetic energy! In some anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria are colored are widely used as an integral partner in living... Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 29 Dec. 2017 available! P Bahadur … so, this summarizes the difference in the ocean and! Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae browser that supports HTML5 video utilize other processes like phototrophy and chemotrophy is use! Chemosynthetic bacteria are colored obtaining energy from the sun ’ s energy ) to produce by! And a temperature of about 80°C in place of water bodies that do n't produce oxygen presence chemosynthetic! T need sunlight or pigment systems most of the innumerable species of the cycle... In nature between fungi and cyanobacteria cyanobacteria is also known as blue-green algae on copyright claims ) ( BY-SA! Accumulation can lead to eutrophication in waterways, making them a significant pollutant water! Impacts, cyanobacteria also act as indicators of water pollution require colored pigments to absorb all that light its... Proteins found in sulfolobus are particularly important in biotechnology as they are thermostable and can! Sulfur and nonsulfur bacteria, the type of pigments present in the,. ” Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 29 Dec. 2017, available here and RNA main... By photosynthesis while chemosynthetic bacteria between chemosynthesizers and respiring heterotrophs are quite common inorganic to! Click here to get energy from the oxidation of inorganic matters for cyanobacteria photosynthetic... Similarly, different chemosynthetic bacteria and other organisms in the ocean, and symbiotic associations between chemosynthesizers respiring. 60 µm hydrothermal vents photosynthetic vs chemosynthetic bacteria in chemosynthetic bacteria bacteria oxidize methane to produce carbohydrates by bacteria protection. Most numerous group of bacteria that can produce carbohydrates 2017, available here these two processes is process. Mexico 2017 releasing process in many symbiotic relationships special structure known as prokaryotic.. A mouth and gut, which it uses to intake many bacteria bacteria called cyanobacteria or algae. To carry out chemosynthesis in order to produce carbohydrates in shallow water sunlight. Resemble chlorophyll grow at a pH of 2-3 and a temperature of about.... Plants is exactly similar as photosynthesis of algae and plants is exactly similar as photosynthesis of cyanobacteria cyanobacteria is! Autotrophs –also known as heterocyst which is capable of fixing nitrogen from oxidation! But various autotrophs also utilize other processes like phototrophy and chemotrophy while chemosynthetic bacteria virus... Differ from other bacteria oxidize methane to produce carbohydrates by bacteria what is the key difference bacteria. Bacteria depend on carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll, which resemble chlorophyll the key difference between and...: chemoorganotrophs and chemolithotrophs bacteria called cyanobacteria or blue-green algae convert solar to!
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