(The nation's first all-steel passenger coach was completed by SP at its Sacramento Shops in July, 1906.) During the pre-war years, starting with 1936 as the year that marked the beginning of a vast improvement program throughout the SP system, the company spent through 1941 approximately $123,000,000 for additions and betterments to the transportation plant. Trade of the area was being well served by steamers and sailing vessels; and, what was more important at the moment, the most direct and cheapest route for the transcontinental line would have been through the Cajon and San Gorgonio passes to the Colorado River, with a branch line later into Los Angeles. & South Eastern Rail Road chartered in May of 1888 (later known Aside from its normal share of such traffic, SP was flooded with additional tonnage of lumber from the Pacific Northwest due to a sixty-day tieup of coastwise schooners late in 1940. By May, 1945, this volume had increased eight-fold to a wartime peak of 33,300 carloads, a major portion of which was handled over SP lines into the port area that included San Francisco, Oakland and adjacent points. Southern Pacific's present-day network of 4,332 miles of lines in Texas and Louisiana represents the consolidation of numerous separate companies, two of which had portions of their lines in operation long before either the Central Pacific or Southern Pacific were organized in California. It was June of 1867 before the forces could be brought back into the mountains, where the grade in many places was still buried under heavy snow packs. As the year 1887 ended, heavy construction was under way in the Santa Lucia mountains north of San Luis Obispo. The project of installing automatic block signals on all of the company's primary main lines, which work had been continued progressively for a number of years, was completed during 1931, to give SP more road-miles of railroad protected by this safety device than any other railroad in the country. There the terminus remained for thirteen years while construction forces concentrated on completing the line through the San Joaquin Valley and eastward from Los Angeles, as already described. It was a case of dumping rock into the 1,100-foot break faster than the rampaging river could sweep it away. Also during that year, and the ones to follow, the railroad handled an enormous volume of transcontinental .traffic that ordinarily would have moved by steamship through the Panama Canal had not intercoastal steamers been first diverted to foreign trade routes and later taken over by the government. [HIDALGO ! During 1859-60 the road was graded about 60 miles to Suisun. interchange with the growing Rock Island system and soon after reached Among other early companies was Peter Donahue's 1870 rail-ferry service from Santa Rosa to Donahue Landing and San Francisco. Operation of special trains was stopped, reduced fares for party movements were canceled to discourage group travel, practically all excursion fares were discontinued, sale of Pullman accommodations were regulated to assure maximum occupancy, and other means were instituted to get full utilization of train space and passenger equipment. On the West Coast were located the aircraft plants that produced 60 per cent by weight of all the fighting planes manufactured during the war, and the shipyards which built 44 per cent of the nation's new cargo tonnage. Another acquisition during 1932 was that of the Petaluma and Santa Rosa Railroad Co. with 37 "miles of electric lines serving an intensively developed agricultural section of Sonoma County, Cal. Lima in 1939. To meet competition of a rival ferry line on the Oakland Estuary "creek route," the railroad built a bridge (later filled in) across San Antonio Creek and extended its service to the town of San Antonio (now East Oakland) on September 28,1864. Forty miles of sheds were eventually erected, the nearly solid covering over the tracks once prompting a boomer brakeman to remark: "I've railroaded all over the world, but this is the first time I've ever railroaded in a barn." Chinese laborers were swung in baskets over cliffs high above the American River to hew a footing so that workers could blast out a grade for the track in the mountain side. This made Southern Pacific truly "transcontinental" with what was then the most extensive transportation system in the world. For the particular accommodation of winter vacation travel between Chicago, Tucson and Phoenix, the "Arizona Limiteds," two all-Pullman streamliners were operated jointly with the Rock Island Lines every other day from December 15, 1940, to April 1, 1941, and again during the 1941-42 season. in 1907. For their contributions, they also enjoy massive subsidization for infrastructure upgrades. The O&C was forced into receivership and on July 1, 1887, the properties were formally acquired under lease by the Southern Pacific. This did not account for the many thousands of furloughees and armed services personnel, with members of their families, who rode with other passengers on regular trains. Track was laid over curvatures reaching up to 14 degrees on a maximum grade of 3.3 per cent. Focal points of most serious damage were: (1) Soledad Canyon, where the Santa Clara River tore into the railroad at many places along a 13-mile area, completely ripping out four miles of main line and five steel bridges, buried three bridges under sand and debris, and clogged two tunnels which had become huge culverts for the charging river; (2) Colton area, where the combined fury of the Santa Ana River and Lytle Creek made a shambles of the SP and PFE yards, covered tracks with silt up to a foot deep, and washed out 450 feet of track and wooden trestle approach to the Sunset Route main line bridge across the river; (3) Los Angeles, where the 301-foot double track Dayton Avenue bridge collapsed, and where river embankments were washed from under main line and Taylor Yard trackage; (4) Montalvo bridge, where a struggle of two days and two nights saved the 35-span steel structure which was the key to reopening the Coast Line. Stanford testified in later years that he and his associates would gladly have sold out in 1869 for ten cents on the dollar, but the Central Pacific in operation was no more attractive to "smart" investors than it had been before the first rail was laid. The 278-mile Modoc Line, opened for traffic on September 15, 1929, was created by building from Klamath Falls 96 miles to Alturas and rehabilitating the N-C-O- narrow gauge from Alturas to' a connection with SP's Overland Route in Nevada. The immediate objective was Santa Cruz, but it was the intention to extend the line down Salinas Valley and across the Coast Range mountains to an ultimate connection with the Denver & Rio Grande, which at that time was a narrow gauge line building westward. Construction of the $11,000,000 Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, one of the finest passenger stations in the nation, was begun late in 1933 under joint agreements by the SP, Union Pacific, and Santa Fe. The manpower shortage was SP's greatest wartime problem. Had it been possible to visualize the war's gigantic tide of freight and passenger traffic before it became a reality, it is doubtful that successful handling of the transportation task would have been considered possible by SP from the standpoint of available equipment and facilities. Trains were in operation to Salem depot on October 11 and to Albany on December 25,1870; to Harrisburg, June 25, and to Eugene on October 15, 1871, when the 345-mile stage coach journey to the California terminus of the railroad was cut to five days. Later this interest was increased to 46 per cent of the stock. Work of organizations and bureaus established during the defense period to smooth the flow of traffic, was greatly accelerated when war came. A letter of which they are particularly proud came in midst of the war from General Dwight D. Eisenhower, in which the European supreme allied commander stated: "Without this support we could not go forward. World War II brought to the company, as it did to other railroads, the greatest transportation job in all history. In addition to the spectacular "Daylights," other new trains and improved passenger services were added during 1937. [NOTE: The contention that the CPRR's Chinese laborers were swung in "baskets" during the construction of Cape Horn, located just East of Colfax, is a long time and often repeated misconception. EP&NE: ... To Breece at Cloudcroft during 1920s. The Pacific Railroad Act was signed by President Abraham Lincoln on July 1, 1862, and six months later, on January 8, 1863, the first shovelful of earth was turned by Central Pacific in constructing the pioneer line. Cutting a roadway through the rock walls of the Sierra was literally hand carving. Of these 28,000 cars, plus an average of about 77,000 foreign line cars on SP Lines, an average of only 2.4 per cent were out of service for repairs. In conclusion he said: "I know the men and women of our railroad. General Stores at Sacramento, West Oakland, Los Angeles, El Paso, Houston and the many local stores, had average monthly issues of stores' stock, including rail and fuel, over twice those of 1939, reaching an all-time peak value of $10,423,800 in March, 1945. The temporary route was opened for operation on June 26, 1939, and on May 24, 1942, all trains were operating over the new line, equipped with Centralized Traffic Control, with 12 tunnels totaling over three and a half miles in length, and featuring a 3,588-foot double-track two-deck rail-highway bridge across the Pit River. To Southern Pacific men and women President Mercier directed a stirring message outlining the railroad's responsibilities and how it was prepared to meet them. Construction on Lucin cut-off began March 17, 1902, and on November 13, 1903, tracks from the east and west shores met near the center of the lake. Complete meals served on trains and at restaurants totaled nearly 12,000,000, box lunch sales averaged 6,000 daily and sandwich sales 16,000 daily, enough sandwiches to pile 1,750 feet high. What had loomed as lucrative traffic at the outset of their project began to fade away when Nevada mining activity, particularly the Comstock Lode operations, went into a temporary decline and when opening of the Suez Canal diverted heavy tonnage of the Oriental trade that otherwise would have moved across the continent by rail to Pacific ports. An important change in the entry of SP trains to New Orleans began December 17,1935, when passenger and freight trains were routed for the first time over the impressive Huey Long 4.4-mile public highway and railroad bridge across the Mississippi River. A tough battle was fought week after week, and on November 6, 1906, the river was turned back into its channel. During 1870 the Big Four reorganized the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, and under its name carried through much of the construction already referred to in this sketch. SP bought half ownership in 1903 and in November, 1910, acquired full control of PE and other electric railway properties Huntington had controlled in Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside and Orange counties. Only a few of the major - projects can be reviewed in this sketch. Heavy storms of 1939-40 did such extensive damage to tracks and tunnels in Los Gatos canyon that SP was granted authority on September 20, 1940, to abandon the poorly patronized 15-mile portion from Los Gatos to a point about nine miles from Santa Cruz.). The primary objective in expediting the handling of merchandise freight was not to substitute trucks for trains, but rather to supplement trucks to train operations and hold the long hauls to the rails. PFE started its operations with 6,600 refrigerator cars. Phelps, Dodge & Company, extensive mining and smelting operators, developed the line dating from the Arizona and Southeastern opened in May, 1888, to haul ore and other traffic from Copper Queen mine at Bisbee to a connection with the Sonora Railway extension at Fairbank. Before this date the Big Four and their engineers had pondered over the exact route for the railroad through southern California. Staffed with experienced railroad men, it was located in the Washington office of the U. S. Quartermaster General to act in a liaison capacity with the Army, Navy, Marines and the railroads in setting up schedules and routes for movements of armed force personnel and equipment. December 12, 1945, President Truman signed a bill repealing the remaining rate provisions of the land grant law. El Paso, city, seat (1850) of El Paso county, extreme western Texas, U.S. After the A&SE was created the new railroad wasted no time in beginning construction opening its initial 36-mile route between Bisbee and Fairbanks the following year in 1889. Construction between there and El Paso was carried on partly by GH&SA and partly by the construction forces that built the SP line from the Pacific Coast. Railroads like El Paso and Southwestern Railroad of Texas that were started after 1900 will not have as many valuable collectibles or antiques as older lines. To the properties in Texas and Louisiana, the 40-mile line of the Franklin and Abbeville Ry. Most passengers, particularly those in coaches, got their meals at depot eating houses located for convenient train stops. Volumes of data were compiled [See"Reports of Explorations and Surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, made under the direction of the Secretary of War, in 1853-4" Volumes I-XII. The service enjoyed such a quick response in popularity that it was expanded over Pacific Electric lines and then reached out to a limited territory on SP lines in October, 1929, and on February 4,1930, the name was changed to Pacific Motor Transport Company. A crossing of the Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio, the Texas & Pacific, and the El Paso & Northeastern railroads. Northwestern Pacific, affected by Golden Gate Bridge competition, discontinued its ferry boat and electric train interurban service, the last unit ending operations on February 28, 1941. The land, with certain exceptions, included alternate sections twenty miles on each side of a 400-foot right of way, and ultimately the government profited immeasurably through its deal with the various railroads. Some of the founders of this company then organized the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, which was incorporated on December 2, 1865, and in the following year authorized by Congress to build south through the Santa Clara, San Benito and San Joaquin valleys to the California state line near Needles, where it would meet the Atlantic & Pacific (Santa Fe) then projecting its road westward. What ultimately began the A&SE's astronomical growth was the coming of electricity around the turn of the century. It was under his direction that rigid economies were made, reorganizations effected, and financial matters handled in such a skillful manner that when general business activities gave evidence of recovery SP was able to make investments in equipment and extensive improvements to services that gave the company a position of eminence among progressive railroads. The website contains everything from historic (fallen flags) to contemporary (Class I's, regionals, short lines, and even some museums/tourist lines) rosters, locomotive production information, technical data, all notable models cataloged by the five major builders (American Locomotive, Electro-Motive, General Electric, Fairbanks-Morse, and Baldwin), and much more. First to be established in April, 1941, was the Military Bureau of the Passenger Department in San Francisco, which went on a 24-hour working basis at outbreak of the war. Three were reconditioned after many years' service as stationary boilers, two actually having been reclassified as steam plants. The San Antonio and Aransas Pass Ry. This resulted in the need for a new smelter, which was built just south of Bisbee. Today the pioneer route around the lake is entirely abandoned. on November 27, 1871; to Salinas on November 1, 1872; and to Soledad on August 12, 1873. Ultimately, the holding company created An important Southern Pacific acquisition on July 1, 1887, was the South Pacific Coast property in California, which included more than 100 miles of main and branch line narrow gauge railroad from Oakland and Alameda to Santa Cruz, ferry boat service on San Francisco Bay, and three miles of horse-drawn street car, freight and passenger service between Newark and Centerville. SP had control of the capital stock and guaranteed the principal and interest on the first mortgage bonds of this company up to 1903, when a court decree required SP to relinquish its control. There were then 238 whose memory was enshrined in the huge gold star on the railroad's service flag, and final reports were incomplete. Others followed, some of them having a short route to the rich Orient as the primary objective rather than being aimed at the development of the West. Only stage coach and freight stations dotted the route, except at a short distance northerly there were the villages of Florence and Tempe, also the store, blacksmith shop, and a few buildings at a crossroads, the site of present-day Phoenix. A stirring chapter in Southern Pacific history was enacted in the Imperial Valley during 1905-06-07 when the railroad's engineers and resources were matched against the unruly Colorado River which broke its banks and threatened to inundate much of the area that was to become one of the prolific garden spots of the world. Certain revisions were made in 1940 but not in the provision that troops, military equipment and supplies be moved for 50 per cent less than standard fares and rates. Men and women of the armed forces were given a lot of long and short train rides. The war ended less than eleven months after the government took over the railroads, but the properties were not returned to private operation until 12:01 a.m., March 1, 1920, making a total of approximately 26 months under federal control. The two beautiful red-orange-black streamliners, each costing a million dollars, each with 449 saleable seats, were placed in service March 21, 1937, on a 9%-hour schedule. One of the biggest was a line change of nearly six miles in San Jose, which involved construction of eight grade separations, considerable trackage and facilities, and the erection of a new passenger station. The government's railroad commissioners finally ruled that the rails should join in the vicinity of Promontory Summit in the barren, low hills beyond Great Salt Lake in northern Utah. Southern Pacific was then the longest and one of the major transportation systems in the country. (Stewardess-nurse service, a pre-war feature on Overland and Golden State route trains, had been discontinued January 15, 1942, so the experienced nurses would be available for military and naval service.). Central Pacific provided buffets on most of its Silver Palace cars, as did Pullman on its Hotel Cars. The citizenry was not entirely asleep. The American Railway Association, founded in October, 1891 (predecessor of today's Association of American Railroads, organized in September, 1934), coordinated many phases of operations and practices, particularly in the handling of freight cars through the association's Car Service Division to avoid car shortages and congestion during heavy traffic situations. Other facilities, including subways and an office building, were added in 1926, and an engine terminal was completed at Taylor Yard during 1929-31. This was granted later in the year, to become effective as soon as adequate substitute service was available to commuters. Temporary tracks were laid on city streets for removal of debris and to bring in rebuilding materials. A total of 19,980 men and women from the ranks of SP and its wholly owned subsidiary companies had gone into the armed forces as of August 15, 1945. average distance of each trip was 1,159 miles. By November the road was in operation to Summit station. Proving ground for this revolutionary practice in a railroad's handling of merchandise freight was on SP's electric line subsidiary between Los Angeles and some twenty stations in southern California. Huntington was the last survivor of the quartet of Sacramento merchants whose courage and sagacity had created the western portions of the nation's first transcontinental rail routes, and who were to become immortal in the annals of western achievement. [The Last Spike is currently on display at the Museum which was renamed the Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University in 1998. Intensive recruiting was promoted through newspapers, radio and other media. Through this endorsement the finally computed Central Pacific debt to the government of about $58,813,000 was paid in full by Southern Pacific in July, 1908. In 1901 by Henry E. Hunting-ton, nephew of Collis P. Huntington, Charles Crocker and mark Hopkins before... 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