Recent theories in linguistics and pedagogy put an emphasis on the relevance of the mother tongue in the process of learning another language and present it as an asset that a child can bring to the classroom. By insisting on the use of ‘Russian only,’ we will be sending students’ contradictory information. according to this hypothesis, the existence of similarities between languages enables a leaner to easily acquire skills in the use of a foreign language but with difficulties. Neo-fascist groups in a number of countries promote overtly racist policies in relation to immigrant and culturally diverse communities. The use of L1 is also effective in improving the ability of learners to improve their cognitive abilities. This text illustrates the crucial role of the mother tongue literacy in second language acquisition by presenting findings from a comparative study conducted in primary schools in Senegal. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. The basic components that have been identified across languages include: morphology, semantics, syntax, pragmatics, and phonology. Second Language Acquisition: Learning to Use Language in Context. Psychologically; the proper development of the child is closely boring with the continued use of the language he has spoken from birth, the language of his parents, brothers and sisters, friends and people he … This paper examines the implications of connectionist models of cognition for second language theory. In the second language teaching learning context such as in Kingdom of Bahrain, pronunciation of the target language is generally not given adequate importance. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Background of the Role of Mother Tongue in Second Language Acquisition There is a variation in languages in the forms of used to create meanings, in addition to the actual meanings. Due to this situation, teachers of L2 are made aware of the significance of translation in language sessions. Under both policies, culturally diverse groups will no longer be visible or audible. CA priori is also called predictive or strong version while CA posterior is also called the explanatory or a weak version of CA. The outcomes of studies into the important issue of the use of L1 in classrooms in different parts of the world shows that L1 is of value in achieving socio-cognitive objectives during learning. When students work in groups, they do not have to speak Russian all the time. On the other hand, she was not able to grasp the language entirely. Cook, V. (2013). [THE IMPORTANCE OF THE MOTHER TONGUE ON LEARNİNG SECOND LANGUAGE] -THE MOTHER TONGUE AS A VİTAL POINT- The language is the most important tool in human life to survive.We use language in order to inform the people around us of what we feel, what we desire, and understand the world around us. students; firstly for successful transfer of literacy skills from the MT to the second language, secondly for second language acquisition and thirdly for successful achievements in further studies. A great deal of the impact of mother tongue on the second language exists in translated abstracts. The use of mother tongue is associated with the identity of the learner. However, "assimilation" is similar in many ways to "exclusion" insofar as both orientations are designed to make the "problem" disappear. Importance of the Mother Tongue on Learning Second Language - essay example for free Newyorkessays - database with more than 65000 college essays for studying 】 In addition, the volume provides an in-depth look at the linguistic history of Senegal before, during, and after French colonialism. In areas where L2 is used as the medium of instruction, learners experience problems resulting from the fact that their task is threefold. Despite the competence that a student may have in understanding the authentic reading and listening resources, a significant number focus on translating from L2 to L1 and vice versa. Little to no attention is given to how words should be pronounced (Dralo A, 2012). Learning consists of the unsupervised association of pattern elements with one another. They worry that linguistic, cultural, "racial" and religious diversity threaten the identity of the host society. Learners have been involved in a constant effort to check the meanings of terms during L2 learning in their native language by looking up the meanings in bilingual dictionaries or recommending that the teacher teaches them in L1. Second language acquisition (also known as second language learning or sequential language acquisition) refers to the process by which a person learns a "foreign" language—that is, a language other than their mother tongue. 2.1. When one has a basic communicative competence in a secondary language such as Russian, high capabilities exist for managing business and leisure activities in the future (Larsen-Freeman & Long, 2014). The role of mother tongue in teaching and learning of English has been discussed in literature. Whereas neo-fascist groups advocate expulsion of immigrants or at least exclusion from the mainstream of society (e.g. Conclusion 1.2. (2011). Another theory that explains the impact of mother tongue on secondary language acquisition is the critical period hypothesis. The acquisition of a language takes place in five stages namely: pre-production stage, early production stage, the stage of speech emergence, the stage of intermediate fluency, and the advanced fluency stage (McLaughlin, 2013). When native language is used in classrooms, students are made to think that words in L2 have an L1 correspondence, but this is usually not common (Khansir, 2012). Studies in monolinguals indicate that despite the fact that they may not be easily verbalized, skilled readers show sensitivity to common letter combinations in the language they write. The proficiency acquired by some learners is native-like in most foreign languages they learn, while a number of them do not achieve similar proficiency in a foreign language in the same manner as the native language (Bono, 2011). McLaughlin, B. Routledge. However, a review can be done on them as a sample a sample of a different variety of Russian (Littlewood & Yu, 2011). Contrastive analysis has been done in two versions: a CA prior and a CA posteriori. The aim of this paper is to explain the effects of mother tongue on learning Russian as a second language and the manner in which it is relevant in teaching the latter. According to the identity hypothesis, L2 learners have been involved in the active organization of the new language that they hear and develop generalizations regarding its structure, in the same manner as children learning L1. This teaching method was called ‘ audiolingual ’ and was quite a success in the USA. These errors are significantly brought by the impact of mother tongue on the manner in which a person speaks. Consequently, they promote educational policies that will make the "problem" disappear. The significance of pragmatics is their role in improving the understanding of the relevant style and the time at which it should be used. It is dependent on culture and thus results in difficulties for people who are not native speakers or those who come from a different cultural background (Littlewood & Yu, 2011). This shows that the cultural, academic, and linguistic needs of a second language learner should not be disregarded and errors should be allowed to prevent the development of fear of learning a particular second language. Language transfer has an impact on speakers in a positive or negative manner based on the structure of the native language they acquire. Learning Institution Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1. They also respond to visuals and pictures and have the ability to understand gestures and phrases during communication. If human capacity in language is not improved, reading would become challenging. Research on first language and second language acquisition has also been done in the context of inflectional morphology and syntax. Crosslinguistic interaction and metalinguistic awareness in third language acquisition. Theories Explaining the Role of Mother Tongue in Second Language Acquisition Role of Mother Tongue in Orthographic and Phonological Processing Several simulations of constituent-order transfer within this framework are discussed. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. A number of aspects such as variables that describe cognitive thinking and social characteristics of humans have a hindering impact on the acquisition of L2. Teachers of second languages have the knowledge of the significance of translation in classroom languages because all students perform mental translation of materials from language 1 to language 2 (Ball, 2010). This condition was observed in ‘Genie’ who was neglected since she was 2 years old until she attained the age of 13 years and was exposed to little language interaction. 3.2. ), The Handbook of Cognitive A significant theoretical shift was observed in linguistics and psychology when there was a beginning of a focus on universal language acquisition rather than the variations among languages. New trends in crosslinguistic influence and multilingualism research, 60, 25. It is found that when children are less restricted to use mother tongue, they are more likely to cooperate with the instructors so that their ability to understand L2 is improved. Background of the Role of Mother Tongue in Second Language Acquisition The process of eliminating mother tongue (MT) from teaching languages has been a major area of debate in teaching activities since the onset of the twentieth century with the implementation of the direct methods (Bono, 2011). Because cues that signal the beginning and ending of words can differ from language to language, a person’s native language can provide misleading information when learning to segment a second language into … When the fist language is maintained, it can be important in achieving developmental objectives of the learner to achieve a positive self-concept. Semantics refer to the manner in which a language expresses meanings. There is the need for one to learn the language during this period, such as before one attains puberty, due to the fact that it is the period when the brain is undergoing development (Khansir, 2012). On the other hand, children who enter school and begin learning in a new language before they completely understand their first language, face much difficulty to tackle abstract ideas in the second tongue. (Koda, 2005). mother tongue during their classes and whether they considered their native language as a helping tool to the L2 or as a barrier. If students have the knowledge of the differences, language interference from the native language can be reduced. It performs both social and cognitive functions in language development. The use of mother tongue can have an impact on the manner in which they learn a foreign language in a positive or negative manner. 22 views View 1 Upvoter First language and target language in the foreign language classroom. They experience more challenges in the attempt to abandon their native language in spite of the communicative methods of emphasizing the foreign language being taught. foundation for the second language acquisition, but also, Mindy McCracken, Lisanne Voges, Samah Rahmeh and C, the beginning of the foreign language learning process, its role gradually decreases when the learner approaches, mother tongue during their classes and whether they considered their native language, Georgian native speakers. Errors in vocabulary have been made by both learners as well as professional authors who acquired Russian as a second language. Keywords: Literacy skills, language instruction / acquisition, linguistic minorities Key Terminology In this paper, we will frequently refer to the mother tongue with the term first language (L1), indicating the child’s native or first acquired language.We will also refer to the second language as L2: this is the language According to the data on the transfer between languages, there is a high probability that L2 learners will demonstrate a thinking aspect that applies L1 strategies, even in advanced levels. She also describes her child,s behaviour in the first months of life, many times unrestless, suggesting a possible relation between this behaviour and the high anxiety level of the mother during this period of time. With regards to the use of L1 and L2 in classroom environments, it s recommended that the experiences of students towards it should be studied. This is not the case because it has been observed that learners who are exposed to L1 develop competence in L2 compared with those who are restricted to use the only L2. Some Implications of the Role of the Mother Tongue in Second Language Acquisition. When there is a big difference between the mother tongue and the second language, language learners refer too much to certain rules of the mother tongue, so that the negative transfer While the existing evidence indicating the relevance of mother tongue in the acquisition of Russian competence as a second language are scarce, there are no serious studies that have been conducted to challenge this situation. There were the impacts of negative transfers from mother tongue in non-professional translations. During the acquisition of language competences, the basic process of learning is a syllabus that involves a finite and pre-practiced sentence. Some errors are observed as a result of the strategies of acquiring a foreign language. When the mother tongue is similar with the target language, the positive transfer is often conducted, contributing to the acquisition of the second language. Vocabulary is of importance because if there is no correct word in a sentence, communication breakdown is observed. Phonology focuses on the manner in which a speech is structured within a language (Larsen-Freeman & Long, 2014). 1.1. Grammatical universality might have been acquired by the learner either directly or indirectly by the use of a native language. Their learning methods involve the transfer of forms and meanings during reading, speaking, or writing a second language. It is known that linguistic competence can be achieved consciously or unconsciously. The impact of the use of mother tongue is that increased use of L1 may undermine interaction during learning of Russian (Bono, 2011). When one attains puberty, the brain is fully developed and learning a language becomes a difficult task. Bilingualism is the ability of a person to speak in two languages by understanding and speaking in either of them. Routledge. It enables an individual to understand the importance of understanding a sentence without considering its literal meaning. Foreign language for adults provides them with the opportunity to differentiate between grammatically correct sentences thus indicating that they were able to access the Universal Grammar. A unified model. This problem results due to pragmatism that effects the level of reality in the manner in which the translation occurs. Since all Russian learners are customarily reliant on their mother tongue, the amount of the first language they require is determined by their competence in linguistic situations (Khansir, 2012). A consequence of population mobility is linguistic, cultural, "racial", and religious diversity within schools. Because some students are less likely to attain native-like proficiency in their second language, there is the need to develop more realistic goals during learning. A network is first trained on a set of first language patterns and then exposed to a set of second language patterns with the same meanings. Learning. In real life environments, this type of information is not of significant beneficial to the learners because it requires the formation of sentences that have not been seen or used apart from utterances of words. Lastly, this paper examines the impact of mother tongue in enabling teaching in classroom sessions. The manner in which they show competence in the second language is associated with the competence they achieve in the first language. ), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Secon, Review of Educational Research, 49 (2), 222 -, Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (pp. Similarities and differences across languages can facilitate the positive transfer or negative transfer such as the occurrence of errors, over production, or misrepresentation. language habits are formed most ef-fectively by giving the right re-sponse, not by making mistakes’ (Riv-ers 1964). In alphabets, letters are representations of sounds and phonemes while in other languages, the symbols are used to refer to syllables or morphemes. Consequently, focus was shifted among researchers by studying the influence of mother tongue and cross-language transfer in the 1980s’. There is a conscious or unconscious dependence on mother tongue structures such as: discourse, tongue structures, and aspects associated with safety and comfort arising from their use (Gass, 2013). The stages involved in progressing through the acquisition of a language by learners is similar, the only variation is the amount of time each student spends in different stages. Speech production and second language acquisition. Due to lack of knowledge regarding key differences between languages, learners have been involved in an erroneous use of words and sentences. When learners make sense of the tasks involved in the instructional activities in the second language, they can attain linguistic competence required to achieve effectiveness in learning as well as being able to face the problem of mastering the content (Littlewood & Yu, 2011). Paper Formatting . There is a general lack of consideration for the manner in which words should be pronounced. Language transfer in Language The 3 The effect of foreign language learning on the development of mother tongue skills is discussed from a broader Routledge. Routledge. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House. A number of inevitable errors occurring in the vocabulary used by a learner are caused by mapping one’s mother tongue to the second language vocabulary. During making of non-word decisions on letter strings, in a case where the overall test contains random letter string rather than strings that are word-like in a list in a combination with words, different strategies can be used by readers. However, the learner may not be able to achieve competence in Universal Grammar during learning of L2. Out of 21 participants, 8 were male and, Participants were of mixed backgrounds (Hungarian, Chinese/Germ, tongues. Mother-tongue is the language that a child learns in his mother’s lap. In the pre-production stage, learners may use up to 500 English words in a vocabulary, but do not speak. An example of the earliest models used during cross-language influence was applied in 1957. Studies conducted by Ball (2010), shows that when learners are restricted from using their mother tongue during learning, they develop the feeling that their identity is threatened (Hutton, 2012). in largely segregated schools and housing areas), more liberal groups advocate assimilation into the mainstream of society. Assimilationist policies in education discourage students from maintaining their mother tongues. A new study is exploring how a person’s native language can influence the way the brain processes auditory words in a second language. In actual life situations, these sentences do not provide enough information to enable conversation to take place. Educational equity for children from diverse language backgrounds: mother tongue-based bilingual or multilingual education in the early years: summary. 3.3. In connectionist models all knowledge is embodied in a network of simple processing units joined by connections which are strengthened or weakened in response to regularities in input patterns. It examines the manner in which learners of a second language can use their mother tongues as the basis of achieving learning objectives such as reading, writing, speaking, and interacting in a second language by applying their mother tongue concepts. Schools in Europe and North America have experienced this diversity for many years but it remains controversial, and educational policies and practices vary widely between countries and even within countries. Teaching should give acquisition an adequate chance to flourish and make the second language learner gains a s… Ball, J. Chapter 2: Role of Mother Tongue in Learning and Teaching Purposes There should be more emphasis on the view that positive transfer is not always associated with the impact of native language (Gass, 2013). 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