This information can be valuable in designing educational interventions to promote intercultural development. Intercultural Communication Institute, Portland, OR, 1998). Introduction A liberal arts education can occur when there is "an institutional ethos and tradition which places greater value on developing a set of intellectual arts, than professional or vocational skills." The final stage, Integration, reflects a shift in one’s experience of self, in which an individual is able to move in or out of different cultural worldviews. Our view is that two distinct kinds of universalization can be recognized in the development of intercultural sensitivity: "minimizing" and "synthetic" universalization. Institutional Uses of the IDI Institutions that value the development of intercultural sensitivity, as evidenced by their institutional mission and goals, will likely have a range of programs and structures in place to foster such growth. In brief, the DMIS posits a continuum of worldviews ranging from ethnocentrism, characterized by denial of or defense against cultural difference, to ethnorelativism, an ability to accept the existence of, and adapt to, cultural differences. Learning processes at the intersection of ethical and intercultural education. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27 (4), 421-443. [a] The instrument takes approximately 20 to 30 minutes to complete. Applicability of the IDI for Assessing Outcomes Related to Liberal Arts EducationThe DMIS and IDI can, however, be quite useful for documenting development from ethnocentrism toward ethnorelativism. 301 W. Wabash AvenueCrawfordsville, IN 47933 Basseches, M. (1980) "Dialectical schemata: A framework for the empirical study of the development of dialectical thinking.". If the DMIS framework is consistent with their institutional ethos, and developing intercultural sensitivity ranks highly among their goals, they have probably long since developed structures that foster the development of intercultural sensitivity. While minimizing universalism is characterized as a collapse of the other into the self, synthetic universalism is more integrative and refers to one’s ability to recognize the significance, richness, and uniqueness of other cultures while simultaneously recognizing cross-cultural commonalities. CCT is predominantly provided through day long training workshops and the primary In this regard, the IDI is not a model of attitude change or skills acquisition, but rather a model of the development of a "worldview" structure. IDI surveys may be ordered directly from the ICI at a cost of $5.00 each if they are processed by ICI, with additional fees incurred depending on the type and number of profiles requested. [a] Certification is awarded upon completion of a three-day seminar that focuses on the theory and practice of measuring personal constructions of cultural worldview. The IDI is a proprietary instrument that may only be administered by individuals who receive certification from the Intercultural Communication Institute (ICI). In addition, institutions interested in assessing the development of intercultural sensitivity among their students might find it advantageous to administer the IDI at college entry and then again at the time of graduation. The Intercultural Development Inventory® (“IDI”) is an excellent tool for assessing an individual, group, or organization’s level of intercultural competence, and for providing individual and group feedback and coaching to create a development plan to further enhance intercultural understanding. 27-70). Blaich, C. F., Bost, A., Chan, E., Lynch, R. (2004) Executive summary: Defining liberal arts education. In addition, individuals and groups are provided with their IDI results in conjunction with a mandatory debriefing session facilitated by a trained and certified IDI administrator. Center of Inquiry in the Liberal Arts at Wabash College. Based on Bennett’s Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) [1, 2], the IDI generates an individual or group profile that corresponds to a particular stage of intercultural development, ranging from ethnocentrism, in which one’s own culture is experienced as central to reality, to ethnorelativism, in which one’s own culture is experienced in the context of other cultures. It leaves one able to recognize the significance, richness, and uniqueness of other cultures (to see through others’ eyes without imposing one’s own view upon them), but also able to recognize trans-cultural commonalities with universal value. [b] Psychometric analysis of the IDI [8], as well as external research by Dr. R. Michael Paige (Professor of International and Intercultural Education, University of Minnesota) suggests that the IDI is a "reliable measure that has little or no social desirability bias and reasonably, although not exactly, approximates the developmental model of intercultural sensitivity." Based on this theoretical framework, the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) was constructed to measure the orientations toward cultural differences described in the DMIS. The ethnocentric stages include Denial, Defense, and Minimization. Milton Bennett and Mitchell Hammer, the IDI is theoretically-based on Bennett’s Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS). Please be assured that the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) is a cross-culturally valid and reliable assessment of intercultural competence. If individuals or groups are given their results, a certified administrator will provide them with detailed information about their stage of development and help translate IDI profiles into positive action planning. This neglect, they add, "is a significant limitation of the IDI with respect to our understanding of the aims of a liberal education." (765) 361-6100, http://liberalarts.wabash.edu/cila/home.cfm?news_id=1400, Weaver '20 Opens Doors, Creates Opportunities, A Remarkable 97.6% First Destination Rate. The main criticism of the DMIS has been that its assumed linearity of movement represents a “Western” ... Intercultural Development Inventory. The Bennett scale, also called the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), was developed by Milton Bennett.The framework describes the different ways in which people can react to cultural differences.. It is developed using rigorous psychometric protocols with over 5,000 respondents from a wide range of cultures. [3]. Development proceeds from ethnocentrism through reversal and "minimizing" universalization toward ethnorelativism, as DMIS postulates, but it should not stop at that point. Resistance to the IDI is common for individuals or groups characterized by more ethnocentric stages of development. Our view was that its usefulness could be determined by (1) the extent to which the theory of intercultural sensitivity development (DMIS) is sound and complete in itself, and (2) the degree to which the theoretical development of intercultural sensitivity is consistent with the goals of a liberal arts education. The Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) assesses intercultural competence –the capability to shift cultural perspective and appropriately adapt behavior to cultural differences and commonalities. Intercultural competence has been identified as a critical capability in a number of studies focusing on overseas effectiveness of international sojourners, international … Results are compiled and a graphic profile of an individual or group’s predominant stage of intercultural development is generated. I’ve written about the IDC and related assessment tool, the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) in previous posts. The Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) is a short paper-and-pencil survey that measures an individual’s awareness of and sensitivity to cultural differences. The DMIS incorporates six stages of development that are divided into ethnocentric and ethnorelative categorizations. The first consideration of institutions contemplating the use of the IDI in outcomes assessment will be the degree to which an ethnorelative perspective supports their institutional mission and goals. For this reason, it only makes sense to assess intercultural development among participants who have benefited from structures and opportunities for such growth and reflection. Responses are scored on a five-point Likert-type scale. Review of the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) for Assessing Outcomes of a Liberal Arts Education. The DMIS is a constructivist approach to explaining personal variations in worldview and the experience of cultural difference. Since the 1960s, cross-cultural training has developed into the product of a small, multinational, commercial industry. IDI assessment instruments may be ordered directly from the ICI at a cost of $5.00 each if they are to be processed by ICI, with additional fees charged according to the type and number of profiles requested. Intercultural Development Inventory The Intercultural Developmental Inventory (IDI) is the only theory-based assessment of intercultural competence. The ICS Inventory is an easy to use, cross-culturally validated assessment of an individual’s approach to communicating, resolving conflicts and solving problems. Although cultural differences are viewed as acceptable on the surface, deep down an individual in this stage views other cultures as essentially similar to one’s own. In Denial, one’s own culture is viewed as essential, and consideration of other cultures is generally avoided through psychological and/or physical isolation from difference. This change in cognitive development is clearly aligned with the intellectual goals of a liberal arts education, including openness to new ideas and perspectives and the ability and desire to think critically about the beliefs, behaviors, values, and positions one might hold. The ICS Inventory. Measuring intercultural sensitivity: The intercultural development inventory. Bennett, M.J., Hammer, M.R., & Wiseman, R. (2003). Administering and Scoring the IDI The IDI can be administered to individuals and groups depending on the particular goals of the institution, although individual profiles require considerably more time and effort to score. In Adaptation, one is able to incorporate different cultural perspectives into his or her worldview, which may result in intentional shifts in behaviors or attitudes to accommodate cultural differences. It is a statistically reliable, cross-culturally valid measure of intercultural competence. The DMIS presents a theoretical framework for a complex developmental sequence which involves a progressive cycling of perspective and experience in the construction of one’s worldview. The Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) is a short survey designed to measure an individual's awareness of and sensitivity to cultural differences (intercultural sensitivity). Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. In R. M. Paige (Ed. The IDI tracks an individual’s movement from rigid and dualistic ("black and white") thinking patterns to more complex cognitive processes characterized by openness, flexibility, and the ability to incorporate multiple perspectives into one’s worldview. [d] Items were then tested on a sample of 226 respondents, which resulted in the final set of 50 questions. [c] Interviews were then categorized by a team of four raters and reviewed by a team of experts who removed those items that were not similarly classified by at least five of the seven experts. One of the central tenets of the model is that, as an individual’s experience with cultural difference becomes more sophisticated and complex, there is a simultaneous increase in his or her competence in intercultural relations. Individual development, according to several of these theories, can be assessed by a variety of quantitative and qualitative assessment measures. Respondents are encouraged to consider how they can continue to develop their intercultural sensitivity by having them pose the question, "What does this mean to me?" From the logic of the DMIS, it follows that responses to IDI prompts that would reflect "synthesizing" universalization can only be interpreted as "minimization." It emerges from critical perspectives on both the cultures of others and one’s own culture. The Intercultural Development Continuum is a concept that is useful in establishing our capability to effectively bridge across difference. [c], The DMIS theory parallels other accepted developmental paradigms such as Perry’s Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development [10], Basseches’s Model of Dialectical Reasoning [1, 2], King’s Seven Stages of Reflective Judgment [7], and Brown’s Model of Wisdom Development [6], in that experience coupled with cognitive development leads to more sophisticated approaches to construing and interpreting experience. (765) 361-6100, http://liberalarts.wabash.edu/home.cfm?news_id=1400, Weaver '20 Opens Doors, Creates Opportunities, A Remarkable 97.6% First Destination Rate. In addition, studies intended to foster global competence (such as diversity series, service-learning and field placement opportunities, or other programs that push students beyond their comfort zones) present potential opportunities for students to acquire intercultural competencies. Curricular offerings that incorporate opportunities for cross-cultural interaction and/or a global perspective within their course structures may also be appropriate places to assess students’ intercultural development. Perhaps the most common arena for implementing the IDI is study abroad programs. Comparing DMIS Theory with the Center of Inquiry’s Theory of Liberal Arts Education Our initial point of comparison rests on our working definition of liberal arts education. While the most obvious application of the IDI may be with students participating in study abroad programs, its usefulness could extend to assessing the development of intercultural sensitivity in students enrolled in domestic off-campus study programs, internships, student-teacher placements, and other programs that take students beyond their cultural comfort zones. Where institutions have consciously incorporated intercultural development as a goal, beyond simply offering discipline-specific programs of study abroad, they have set the stage for making good use of the IDI as an assessment instrument. IntroductionThe Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) is a short survey designed to measure an individual's awareness of and sensitivity to cultural differences (intercultural sensitivity). Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) The IDI is a 50-item questionnaire that seeks to identity an individual’s intercultural competence, defined by the IDI as “the capabil-ity to shift cultural perspective and appropriately adapt behavior to cultural differences and commonalities.“ The IDI asks ques- (2003) "Assessing intercultural sensitivity: An empirical analysis of Hammer and Bennett Intercultural Development Inventory. Bennett, M.J. (1986). There is also some concern that students who speak non-standard English may have difficulty understanding the meaning behind some of the IDI questions. Thus, administrators will also gain a sense of where discrepancies lie between how one rates his or her perceived strengths in intercultural sensitivity and the more objective assessment provided by the IDI. [1, 2] In this regard, intercultural development involves a gradual recognition and appreciation of multiple perspectives and cultural frameworks. A succinct discussion of the DMIS may be found in Paige, R.M. In the late 1990s after much research, an assessment for measuring intercultural sensitivity based on the DMIS was developed. For institutions interested in assessing the development of intercultural maturity in their students, the IDI is certainly a potentially valuable tool. The Intercultural Development Inventory is a statistically reliable, cross-culturally valid measure of intercultural competence adapted from the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity. In addition, to gain the full benefits of the IDI, administrators need to spend a considerable amount of time learning how to present the results to individuals and groups—a process that warrants a certain degree of interpersonal skills in helping people understand the meaning behind their IDI profiles as well as in encouraging the continual reflection and action steps needed to further develop their levels of intercultural sensitivity. … Group profiles present the most obvious use for an institution wishing to understand an entering cohort’s baseline level of intercultural sensitivity. [6] Additional concerns about the IDI focus on the way the survey is constructed. However, there is little evidence that mere exposure to cultural difference, without reflection and cognitive growth, leads to greater intercultural sensitivity. This neglect of "synthesizing" universalization is a significant limitation of the IDI with respect to our understanding of the aims of a liberal arts education. In the Acceptance stage, other cultures are viewed as equally complex to one’s own culture. In R. M. Paige (Ed.). In fact, because of the interrelationships between many liberal arts outcomes, intercultural maturation might speak to student growth and development in many, if not most, qualities associated with liberal arts education. [8] The IDI is also related to other standardized tests, such as the Worldmindedness Scale and the Intercultural Anxiety Scale. One of his colleagues Dr. Mitch Hammer then created a psychometric assessment, the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI), to enable people to assess their own level of intercultural sensitivity. (2003) "Defining liberal arts education," Center of Inquiry Working Paper #1. The framework I’m referring to is called the Intercultural Development Continuum (IDC), which is Mitch Hammer’s research-based revision of Milton Bennett’s Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS). IDI's results teach us how our behavior impacts others, improve our ability to work with and influence others, and help us understand what motivates our own and others' interpersonal behavior. An institutional ethos and tradition that places a primary emphasis on developing a set of intellectual arts. In R.M. In this review, the key characteristics, background, and development of the IDI are presented, along with a discussion of the IDI’s relevance and importance to the goals of a liberal arts education. Despite the many benefits of the IDI, several criticisms have been levied against both the IDI and the DMIS. This resulted in an inventory of 145 items that corresponded to five of the six DMIS stages. In addition to generating an IDI profile, results from the IDI produce a respondent’s perceived versus actual developmental score. The Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) is a short paper-and-pencil survey that measures an individual’s awareness of and sensitivity to cultural differences. While we find the IDI inadequate for assessment of the overall goals of a liberal arts education, it can … Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. An institutional ethos and tradition that places a strong value on student-student and student-faculty interactions both in and out of the classroom. [3, 4]. [as cited in 6] All of these theories suggest that experience, in conjunction with cognitive development, leads to more sophisticated approaches to interpreting experience. Paige (Ed.) Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity. Global preparedness and human resources. Key Characteristics of the IDI The IDI is currently administered as a paper-and-pencil instrument composed of 50 questions that are designed to measure an individual’s sensitivity to and awareness of cultural differences. Certified administrators who prefer to process the IDI results at their respective institutions may do so by purchasing a CD-ROM ($200.00), which permits the generation and printing of various profile formats. Relation to Liberal Arts Outcomes Bennett’s model of intercultural sensitivity describes a critical shift from rigid to more flexible thinking. The Measure of Intellectual Development (MID) and the Measure of Epistemological Reflection (MER) have been used as measures of Perry’s SIED; the Reflective Judgment Interview (RJI) was developed as a measure of King’s Seven States; and a variety of structured and open-ended interviews have been used to assess progress in the development of reflective thinking. 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